Ultrasound Scanning Images of the 4 Most Common Kidney Diseases

Ultrasound Scanning Images of the 4 Most Common Kidney Diseases

Renal ultrasonography is an important method for diagnosing and treating kidney disease. This article summarizes the most common ultrasonographic findings for kidney disease for reference.

Normal Kidney

Longitudinal scan with an ultrasound probe showed that the kidney was broad bean-shaped, and the right kidney was lower than the left kidney; the left kidney showed a single hump because it was close to the spleen. The kidney can be divided into the renal parenchyma and the renal sinus; the renal sinus is hyperechoic on ultrasound imaging and the renal parenchyma is hypoechoic: this can be divided into an outer cortical area and an inner medullary area (cone echo). Between the medulla is the renal column.

Kidney Scanning
Normal adult kidney ultrasound scan image: *renal column, **renal pyramid, ***renal cortex, ****renal sinus
child kidney ultrasound scan image
Normal child kidney ultrasound scan image: *renal column, **renal pyramid, ***renal cortex, ****renal sinus

The normal adult kidney is about 10-12 cm long, and the right kidney is slightly longer than the left kidney. Kidney size correlates with individual size and age. The renal cortical thickness is measured from the base of the renal vertebral body and is typically 7-10 mm. If the renal vertebral body is poorly demarcated, the thickness of the renal parenchyma can be measured and is 15-20 mm.

Renal measurements: L=length; P=parenchymal thickness; C=cortical thickness.

Renal Doppler ultrasonography is widely used in clinical practice and can accurately assess vascular perfusion. Spectral Doppler examination of renal arteries and interlobular arteries can evaluate peak renal artery systolic blood flow, resistance index and blood flow velocity curve, such as renal artery systolic peak blood flow ≥ 180 cm/s, which is renal artery stenosis ≥ 60. % predictors, resistance index ≥ 0.70 indicates abnormal renal vascular resistance.

Doppler ultrasound image of a normal adult kidney
Doppler ultrasound image of a normal adult kidney. Red: blood flow into the transducer; blue: blood flow out of the transducer.

Renal Cyst

Most renal cysts are simple renal cysts that are round in shape and filled with fluid. The incidence of simple renal cysts in people over 50 years old is ≥50%. It is a benign lesion and no further evaluation is required.

Adult cyst
Adult simple cyst, dashed distance: kidney length

Features of complex renal cysts: septation, calcification, and irregular thickening of the cyst wall. Doppler ultrasonography is feasible for further evaluation. Bosniak grading and follow-up of complex renal cysts can be performed with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography or enhanced CT. The Bosniak classification can be divided into grades I-IV, grade I: simple cyst, grade IV: cystic malignancy risk 85%–100%.

Adult complex renal cyst
Adult complex renal cyst with wall thickening in the lower pole, +, dashed distance: kidney length and complex cyst

In patients with polycystic kidney disease, multiple cysts of varying sizes can be seen. In patients with advanced polycystic kidney disease, the kidneys are enlarged, with no obvious demarcation between cortex and medulla.

Advanced polycystic kidney disease
Advanced polycystic kidney disease with multiple renal cysts

Hydronephrosis

The primary indication for renal ultrasound is to evaluate the renal collecting system. Dilation of the renal collecting system is often associated with obstruction of the urinary tract (including renal pelvis, calyces, and ureters). There is no echo in the hydronephrotic area, and renal sinus dilatation can be seen.

Hydronephrosis in children can be caused by obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction, ectopic ureteral orifice, primary megaureter, and posterior urethral valves (below). In adults, hydronephrosis can be caused by urolithiasis, obstruction of the renal pelvis or ureter, and ureteral compressions, such as pregnancy and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Urolithiasis is the most common cause of hydronephrosis in adults, with a prevalence of 10%-15%.

Hydronephrosis due to obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction in children

Normally, the ureter cannot be seen on ultrasound imaging. However, in the setting of urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux with ureteral dilatation, the ureteropelvic junction can be seen, as well as the dilated ureter (below).

Bilateral ureteral dilatation due to vesicoureteral reflux in children
Bilateral ureteral dilatation due to vesicoureteral reflux in children

Hydronephrosis can be classified into five different grades from mild dilatation of the renal pelvis to thinning of the cortex based on macroscopic findings (Figure A). Hydronephrosis can also be assessed by measuring the level of the neck in the longitudinal section of the renal pelvis, the level of dilation in the transverse section, and cortical thickness (Figures B, C).

A: Late hydronephrosis with cortical thinning; +, dashed line distance: the dilated size of the renal pelvis
B: Renal pelvis, calyx dilation with cortical atrophy; +, dashed line distance: the width of the calyx in longitudinal section
Renal pelvis dilated size in transverse section
 C: Renal pelvis dilated size in transverse section

If abnormal echoes are seen in the collection system, clinical examination, blood analysis, and puncture or drainage should be performed to exclude pyonephrosis if necessary. Hydronephrosis can also be caused by non-obstructive diseases, such as taking diuretics, pregnant women, and children with vesicoureteral reflux.

Renal ultrasonography is an important method for diagnosing and treating kidney disease.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Ultrasound is an important method for diagnosing chronic kidney disease and judging prognosis. Whether it is glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, or inflammation, echogenic cortical enhancement is seen on ultrasound imaging. Normal kidney echoes are similar to those of the liver or spleen. In addition, renal atrophy and cortical thinning are common, especially as the disease progresses. However, kidney size correlates with height, and patients with short stature have smaller kidneys; therefore, kidney size should not be used as the sole criterion.

Chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis: thinning of the cortex and increased echogenicity. +, dotted line: kidney length
Nephrotic syndrome: echogenic demarcation of renal cortex and medulla
Chronic pyelonephritis: renal atrophy, focal cortical thinning. +, dotted line: kidney length
End-stage renal disease: echogenic, homogeneous structure, inability to distinguish renal parenchyma from renal sinus with the naked eye. +, dotted line: kidney length

Acute Kidney Injury

Ultrasound is the method of choice for the detection of acute renal lesions; CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are options for evaluation when ultrasonography is difficult to detect. When evaluating acute renal lesions, renal echo, renal imaging, renal vascularity, renal size, and focal lesions should be observed.

Acute pyelonephritis: cortical echogenicity, ill-defined superior renal pole
Postoperative renal failure: increased cortical echo and enlarged kidneys. Kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis.

CT is the method of choice for evaluating renal trauma, and ultrasound is used for follow-up, especially in patients with suspected urethral tumors (below).

Renal trauma: Infrarenal pole laceration, subcapsular effusion.

Ultrasound Guided Therapy

Kidney biopsy, percutaneous nephrostomy, or abscess drainage can be performed under ultrasound guidance. In the past, thermal ablation of renal tumors was guided by CT, because ultrasound-guided intervention was difficult to clearly display the intestinal distribution, resulting in a higher risk of peripheral intestinal injury. However, the latest guidelines for renal interventional therapy recommend ultrasound guidance as the preferred choice for radiofrequency, microwave, and cryoablation.

(A) Percutaneous nephrostomy with a fistula placed through the renal calyx into the hydronephrosis at the lower pole of the kidney. (B) Pigtail catheter placed in the calyceal dilatation. White arrows: fistula and pigtail catheter.

Percutaneous nephrostomy and abscess drainage can be performed using the one-step or Seldinger technique. Clinicians can choose one-step or Seldinger techniques based on preference, experience, and equipment conditions.

Summary

Renal ultrasonography is simple, convenient, rapid, and low-cost, and is an important method for diagnosing renal disease and guiding treatment. However, it still has certain limitations, and CT and MRI can be used to assist evaluation.

Wellue ECG/EKG Heart Monitor review – A wearable heart monitor with real-time tracking

Wellue ECG/EKG Heart Monitor review – A wearable heart monitor with real-time tracking

From https://the-gadgeteer.com/

REVIEW – As a younger-ish adult being told you have a heart condition is pretty scary. I was diagnosed with tachycardia during a routine check-up. This means my heart randomly races for no apparent reason. I am also asymptomatic so I don’t even notice when it occurs. Monitoring my heart rate accurately became very important to me. I needed something more sophisticated than my smartwatch could provide which is how I found the Wellue ECG/EKG Monitor. It allows me to monitor my heart 24/7 without interfering with my day-to-day activities and it’s discrete enough that no one around me notices it. It also allows me to download all of the data from the device and get it analyzed through AI so I can keep tabs on how my heart is doing. If something seems off, I can then send the data to my doctor to look over it more in-depth. For me, it’s a great way to monitor my heart condition without constant doctor’s appointments and large machines.

What is it?

The Wellue ECG/EKG Monitor is a wearable heart monitor coupled with software that uses AI to analyze the data and provides feedback on any heart conditions.

What’s in the box?

  • Wellue ECG/EKG Monitor
  • Power/data cable
  • USB drive with analysis software, ECG Browser
  • 10 disposable electrodes
  • Chest strap
Power and data clip

Hardware Specs

  • EC Directive:
    • MMD – 93/42/EEC
    • R&TTE – 2014/53/EU
    • ROHS 2.0 – 2011/65/EU
  • Degree protection against electrical shock: Type BF
  • Temperature: 5° – 45°C
  • Relative humidity: 10% – 95%
  • Atmospheric pressure: 700 – 1060hPa
  • Degree of dust & water resistance: IP22
  • Drop test: 1m
  • Battery: 3.7Vdc, 90mAh, 72 hour run time, 2 hour charge time
  • Charging voltage: 4.5 – 5.5v DC
  • Lead type: Single-lead ECG
  • Lead: Lead II
  • Input impendence: ≥10MΩ, 10Hz
  • Linearity and dynamic range: 10mV (peak-to-valley)
  • Common mode rejection: ≥ 60dB
  • Frequency response: 0.67 – 40Hz
  • Gain error: max ±10%
  • Size: 100 x 23 x 8.3 mm
  • Weight: < 35g
  • Life: 5 years
  • ECG Browser:
    • CPU: P4 1.7Ghz or above
    • Memory: 1GB or above
    • Storage: free disk space greater than 200MB
    • Operating system: Windows 7 or Windows 10

Design and Features

The design of the monitor is simple. The front side of it has an “R” to indicate which side should be on your right side when you wear it along with an LED indicator. The LED is off when it’s dead, solid yellow while charging, and solid green when fully charged. It also flashes depending on what mode the device is in, flashing yellow means low battery, a very slow green flash means it’s in standby mode and while worn it synchronizes the green flash with your heartbeat. The backside of it has two electrode snaps as well as the power contact for charging and transferring data. The middle gray part is quite flexible making it possible for the device to contour to your body more comfortably.

ECG disposable electrodes

There are two ways of wearing the Wellue ECG/EKG monitor, chest strap, or electrodes. I personally prefer wearing it with the electrode stickers but I am allergic to prolonged exposure to the adhesive so I alternate between the chest strap and the stickers. The stickers are fabric with a small metal snap in the center and a conductive gel on the back. The chest strap is soft elastic with snaps for attaching the monitor to it and has a classic bikini fastener for those of us who know what those are. On the inside of the strap is a plastic-like strip that you need to get damp before putting it on to allow for optimal conductivity.

Chest strap

Since this isn’t that kind of site, I did not take any pictures of me wearing the device but it is simple to use. The chest strap is cinched snug around your chest right where your sternum ends. It doesn’t need to be super tight but it can’t slip down either. I found adjusting it took a bit of trial and error but once I got it set it was very comfortable to wear and I barely even noticed it. I was even able to sleep with the chest band on and it didn’t shift or slide down.

The electrode stickers are a little more difficult to use at first but require less fiddling throughout the day. The right electrode is placed a few inches under where your collarbone meets your neck while the left electrode is placed at a 45° angle downwards towards your armpit. I found it easiest to place the right electrode first then snap on the monitor and the second electrode with the back peeled slightly off so I could get it correctly aligned.

Once the method of wearing is situated, snap on the monitor with the “R” on the right side of your body. The device will vibrate to let you know you’ve attached it correctly and it will start to blink in sync with your heart rate. The monitor can store up to 30 hours of data before it starts overwriting the oldest information so it is recommended to download the data daily to prevent any data from being erased.

Software

The software that downloads and analyzes the data from the monitor is simple to set up. You create an account with them and fill out some general information about yourself. Once you have it all set up, all you have to do is connect the monitor to your computer using the power/data cable and select download data on the top right side. Once it has imported all of the data you can have it analyzed by the AI system or view the ECG.

The analysis can take quite a bit of time so don’t expect an immediate result. However, once the data is analyzed it provides you with a very clear report.

The report outlines any events that occurred as well as the highest and lowest heart rate. I had a couple of Supraventricular heartbeats that it identified and then showed the EKG for it as well. This is a great report to send to your doctor along with the raw EKG for them to analyze and make sure everything is ok.

What I like

  • Ease of use
  • Comfortable to wear

What I’d change

  • Nothing

Final thoughts

The Wellue ECG/EKG Monitor is an easy way for those with heart conditions to monitor their heart from home. I personally found that I was more relaxed knowing that I had a way to monitor my heart accurately and provide data to my doctor if something felt off. I definitely recommend the Wellue ECG/EKG Monitor to anyone who is looking for a way to monitor their heart health.

Resource: https://the-gadgeteer.com/2021/12/10/wellue-ecg-ekg-heart-monitor-review-a-wearable-heart-monitor-with-realtime-tracking/

What is Asthma?What does Asthma feel like?

What is Asthma?What does Asthma feel like?

Article Overview

1. What is Asthma?
2. Symptoms of asthma
3. Diagnosis of Asthma
4. Understand Your Hypoxic Events Easily with Wellue O2ring
5. Estimated duration of Asthma
6. Prevention of Asthma
7. Treatment of Asthma
8. When to call a professional

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic (long-term) lung disease. The airway narrows and becomes inflamed. This can cause breathing difficulties and wheeze.

Asthma ranges from mild to severe. Some people only experience mild symptoms occasionally. Others have almost constant severe, life-threatening symptoms.

During an asthma attack, the airways become inflamed. When the surrounding muscles contract, they narrow. The mucus produced by inflammation fills the narrow channels. As a result, the airflow is partially or completely blocked.

Asthma affects the larger and smaller airways of the lungs.

The cause of asthma-related inflammation is unclear. However, several environmental “triggers” have been identified.

 

Many causes of asthma are allergens. Allergens can cause some people’s immune system to overreact. Common allergens include:

  • Animal dander and saliva
  • Pollen
  • Mould
  • Dust mites
  • Cockroaches
  • Some medications
  • Certain foods

Also ranked high on the list of asthma triggers are:

  • Viral infections, such as colds and flu
  • Exercise
  • Breathe cold and dry air

Environmental pollutants, such as:

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Wood smoke
  • Paint smell
  • Chemicals
  • Strong smell
  • Emotional stress

For some people with severe asthma, no specific trigger can be determined.

Asthma can develop early, usually before 5 years of age. But its symptoms can start at any age. The condition has a genetic (genetic) component. It usually affects people with a family history of allergies.

Symptoms of Asthma

  • Wheezing (whistle when air is forced out)
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest tightness
  • Persistent cough
  • For some patients with asthma, chronic cough is the main symptom.

Symptoms of a severe asthma attack may include:

  • Extreme shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness
  • Fast pulse
  • Sweating
  • Dilated nostrils and pursed lips
  • Need to sit upright
  • Blue lips and nails

Between asthma attacks or sudden attacks, people with mild or moderate asthma may not have any symptoms.

In some people, symptoms only come on suddenly during or after exercise.

People with asthma who have an upper respiratory tract infection (such as a cold or flu) tend to have more severe symptoms.

Diagnosis of Asthma

Your doctor will ask:

  • Do you have any symptoms
  • How serious are they
  • When and where they happened
  • How often they occur
  • What triggers and alleviates them

These details will help your doctor find ways to help prevent asthma attacks.

Your doctor will also want to know:

  • Your personal history of allergies and respiratory diseases
  • Your family history of asthma, allergies, and respiratory diseases
  • Your doctor will listen to your back with a stethoscope to detect wheezing.

During the attack, your doctor can assess the severity of your sudden attack. He will listen to the airflow in your lungs. He will also observe how you use your chest muscles to breathe. Blue lips or skin indicate that you are not getting enough oxygen.

Other tests can be carried out in the office. These include measuring the speed of the air you can exhale forcefully. This is done by a device called a peak flow meter.

Another test called pulse oximetry measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. It is done by placing a small plastic clip on your fingertips.

Understand Your Hypoxic Events Easily with Wellue O2ring

Wellue O2ring helps to track your blood oxygen level during your sleep, the report shows how long your oxygen is below 90%; how many times during a night your oxygen drops over 4%. You can also zoom into the chart to see more details, such as the exact value when dropping happens. You can easily share with your doctor for analyzing purposes.

During an asthma attack, blood tests may be done to check for infection. An arterial blood gas (ABG) test can be performed on blood samples. It provides more accurate oxygen level measurements. Your doctor may also want you to have a chest X-ray.

Two types of tests are commonly used to show how well your lungs are functioning:

Spirometry — This is a more thorough test. It is used to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. It also provides more detailed information about your lung function.

During spirometry, you exhale into a device that analyzes airflow and volume. After you take the bronchodilator, part of the test may be repeated. This medication relaxes the muscles around the airways. If you use bronchodilators to improve airflow, you have asthma.

Sometimes, when the spirometry shows normal, a provocation test is performed. For this test, you inhale the medicine to see if it causes your airway muscles to tighten. Asthma patients are more sensitive to this drug: their airway muscles are more likely to tighten.

Peak flow meter-this is a small portable tube. It can quickly and easily measure the airflow from the lungs. It measures the speed of the air expelled when you blow hard through it.

Peak flow meters are usually provided for asthma patients to use at home. They can use them to monitor their asthma. These devices help detect the earliest signs of an asthma attack.

Your doctor may want to do a blood test or allergy skin testing. These tests are used to determine specific substances (“allergens”) that can trigger an allergy.

Estimated duration of Asthma

Adult asthma is usually a lifelong disease. Through treatment, symptoms can be controlled. They may be uncommon or very mild.

In about half of children with asthma, asthma will go away on its own. Or it becomes less serious over time. However, it often reappears in later life.

Asthma attacks can go away on their own or with the help of asthma medications. The frequency and severity of attacks vary. It usually depends on the reason for triggering the attack.

Prevention of Asthma

Some asthma episodes can be prevented by avoiding or minimizing exposure to triggers.

These include environmental triggers such as:

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Environmental pollutants (especially when pollution and ozone levels are high)
  • Strong chemicals

If exercise triggers your asthma:

  • Breathe warm, humidified air before and during exercise
  • Use inhalers before exercise
  • Eliminating allergens at home often can go a long way to controlling asthma symptoms.

If dust mites are a trigger:

  • Encase mattresses in airtight enclosures
  • Clean your home frequently
  • Wash bedding frequently in very hot water
  • Remove carpets and heavy draperies from sleeping areas

Some people may need to avoid animals entirely. Others may benefit from taking preventive medicine before an anticipated exposure to animals. Pet owners should keep pets out of bedrooms and bathe them regularly.

Those who are affected by pollens should:

  • Stay indoors whenever possible
  • Use air conditioning
  • Keep windows closed during the high pollen season

Prevention also means learning to anticipate future attacks. Monitor your symptoms and peak-flow readings to help identify a coming attack before symptoms develop. This allows you to adjust your medications to prevent an attack.

Early signs or symptoms of an asthma flare-up include:

  • Coughing more often
  • Increased mucus or phlegm
  • Becoming short of breath quickly with exertion or exercise
  • Developing a sinus headache or fever

Having symptoms that resemble a cold:

  • Runny or congested nose
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes

Treatment of Asthma

The focus of treatment is:

  • Prevent or stop inflammation
  • Relax the muscles in the airway

If you have chronic asthma, please work with your doctor to develop an asthma management plan. The plan stipulates:

  • How to avoid asthma triggers
  • When and how to take medication regularly
  • How to deal with acute attacks
  • How to use a peak flow meter

There are several medicines that can be used to treat asthma. Some treat acute attacks (“rapid relievers”). Other prevent attacks from occurring (“controller”).

It is important to take preventive asthma medications as prescribed. You should take them even if you have no symptoms.

Bronchodilators. Bronchodilators relax the muscles around the airways to improve airflow. They are usually inhaled. One type of bronchodilator is called β-agonist. It includes salbutamol, metanephrine and pirbuterol. Beta-receptor agonists can be used alone as rapid relievers for mild and occasional symptoms. They are also used as “rescue” drugs to stop attacks. They can be inhaled with an inhaler or a nebulizer. A nebulizer is a device that mixes medicine with mist for inhalation. Other bronchodilators are used as “controllers” to reduce the number of asthma attacks. These include salmeterol (Serevent) and theophylline (several brands). They are not useful for asthma attacks because they take a long time to start working.

Anti-inflammatory drugs. These are controllers. Regardless of whether a person has asthma symptoms or not, they are usually taken regularly. They work by reducing inflammation. This reduces mucus production and reduces airway muscle contraction.

Anyone who has more than one asthma symptom every week should consider taking anti-inflammatory drugs. The first choice is usually inhaled corticosteroids.

 When inhaled corticosteroids are not completely successful, corticosteroids can also be taken as pills. People who need urgent care or hospitalization usually get corticosteroids intravenously.

Other inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs can also be used. Leukotriene modulators are taken orally. These drugs block the chemicals that cause inflammation and narrow airways in many people with asthma.

Another anti-inflammatory drug is omalizumab (Xolair), which blocks inflammation by attacking IgE antibodies. IgE antibodies are the main participants in allergic reactions. This medication helps control the symptoms of severe allergic asthma patients who do not respond to other therapies and require frequent oral corticosteroids.

Immunotherapy. Some asthma patients also benefit from immunotherapy. In immunotherapy, patients will inject more and more allergens. The goal is to desensitize the human immune system. Immunotherapy seems to be most effective for mild to moderate asthma symptoms caused by sensitivity to indoor allergens.

Severe asthma attacks must be treated in a hospital. There, oxygen can be administered, and drugs may be given intravenously or with a nebulizer. In life-threatening cases, the patient may need a breathing tube placed in the large airway and artificial ventilation.

When to call a professional

Please call your doctor whenever you or your child continue to experience the following conditions:

  • respite
  • Chest tightness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Cough

Some children with asthma may not particularly complain of shortness of breath. However, they may open their nostrils or use chest and neck muscles when breathing. These signs indicate that they are in trouble.

If you have been diagnosed with asthma, please call your doctor if you have the following symptoms:

  • Getting worse
  • Not controlled by conventional drugs

For example, if you must use emergency bronchodilators more than four times a day, call your doctor. Also, if your peak flow meter reading is in the yellow or red zone, please call.

If you have an asthma attack and your symptoms persist despite taking common medications, seek emergency help immediately.

Although asthma cannot be cured, it almost always can be controlled successfully. Most people with asthma lead relatively normal lives.

PAP Machine Cleaning and Disinfecting

PAP Machine Cleaning and Disinfecting

Taking care of PAP equipment is vital for sleep apnea patients to benefit the most from PAP therapy.

PAP Machine Cleaning

Proper and routine care for PAP machine cleaning and disinfecting will help:

Prevent growth of bacteria and mold

Prevent sickness and infection (eg, pneumonia or bronchitis)

Keep device and equipment working properly

Prolong the life of the equipment

First and foremost, patients should familiarize themselves with these instructions for care when they first get their machine.

How to clean PAP equipment

Note: bleach, harsh soaps, antibacterial solutions, or alcohol-based solutions should never be used to clean PAP masks, tubing, or related equipment to avoid damage.

There are many parts and accessories that come with PAP machines, and each has its own proper guidance for cleaning and care:

PAP mask

Wellue PAP mask

Mask cushions should be washed daily using warm, soap water or PAP equipment-specific wipes or cleaners. After washing, they should be rinsed with water and allowed to air dry (out of direct sunlight).

When using masks, they should be placed on clean skin, free of makeup, oils, and moisturizers.

This is because most mask cushions are made of silicone, which can be broken down faster by facial oils and moisturizers.

Once a week, the mask frame should be soaked in a white vinegar solution (1 part white vinegar to 3 parts water) and then rinsed in distilled water.

Mask headgear and chin straps should be hand-washed weekly using warm, soap water. After rinsing with water, they should be air-dried. Headgear and chinstraps should not be placed in a washing machine or dryer.

PAP hose/tubing

Wellue PAP tube

Tubing should be submerged (ie, in a sink) and washed in warm water and soap. Brushes can be used as necessary to gently clean the inside of the tubing.

Tubing should then be rinsed, hung, and allowed to air dry (out of direct sunlight).

Humidifier water chamber/reservoir

Firstly, when handling the humidifier water chamber, caution must be taken not to spill any water on or around the PAP machine to avoid damage to the interior circuits.

The chamber must always be removed and then filled away from the machine.

Distilled water is typically recommended for humidifier water chambers and should never be reused (change the water daily). The chamber should also be soaked daily in warm water and soap for 10 minutes, rinsed, and air-dried.

PAP filters

The PAP machine itself typically only needs to be wiped clean on the outside weekly or whenever necessary with a wipe or a cloth with warm water and soap.

The machine should be dried after being wiped clean and should never be submerged in water.

Replacing equipment

Generally, recommendations are as follows:

Mask cushions: replace 1-2 times per month.

Masks: replace every 3-6 months.

Machines: should be checked yearly to make sure they are working properly. Expiration dates should also be checked.

Filters: replace monthly.

Humidifier water chambers: replace every 6 months or as needed.

Headgear and chin straps: replace every 6 months.

When to clean PAP equipment

As mentioned, it is important to maintain a regular cleaning schedule, even while traveling.

Depending on the equipment, cleaning should be performed daily and weekly. See the table below for a summary of when PAP equipment should be cleaned.

Daily

Mask cushion

Humidifier water chamber

Weekly

Mask frame

Mask headgear and chin straps

Tubing

Filter

Machine

FAQs about Sleep Apnea & CPAP Therapy

FAQs about Sleep Apnea & CPAP Therapy

What is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a condition in which a patient’s muscles and tissues in the throat and air passage relax while sleeping, and this impedes the flow of air into the lungs due to a blockage of the airway. This can occur many times per night in the sleep cycle and especially during the REM sleep stages. Apnea is Greek for “without breath.”

Is Sleep Apnea Dangerous?

Here’s a list of the types of life-threatening conditions Sleep Apnea helps foster in a person affected by the disorder:

High Blood Pressure
Diabetes
Heart Disease
Stroke


It’s important to understand Sleep Apnea’s role in causing these issues. Sleep Apnea deprives a person of blood oxygen during the night, and as a result, the lack of oxygen puts extra strain on the heart. The extra strain on the heart can raise blood pressure and make it very difficult to control. High blood pressure can cause heart attack or stroke, and has its own set of complications.

If concerned about possibly danger of Sleep Apnea, it’s important to work with a care provider to help get it under control. When controlled, many of the cardiac symptoms can lessen and a person’s energy level and overall health can dramatically improve.

How Wellue Helps

Tracking  and recording below vital signs at home regularly can help healthcare providers have a better understanding of your situations.

Blood Pressure

Wellue Blood pressure Monitor with EKG

For at-home instant and regular monitoring.

Can record long-term data for health insight.

Easily share the data with healthcare providers.

Diabetes Monitoring

Self-testing the blood sugar (blood glucose) can be an important tool in managing the diabetes and preventing complications. Wellue Checkme™ Suit enables at-home blood sugar testing every day.

More useful functions:

EKG Holter monitor for 24 hours.

ECG/EKG recorder

Infrared Thermometer

Tracking Oxygen Saturation

Sleep Apnea Screening

Tracking Blood Pressure

Touch Screen Operation

Preventing&Monitoring heart diease

Smart Heart Monitor

– Inexpensive way to help monitor heart rhythm at home.

– Great for monitoring Arrhythmia, heart failure, Atrial Fibrillation(Afib)…

– Responsive touch screen

– Easy to use and accurate

– Easily share ECG via phone or PC

Wellue Solutions for At-home Sleep Apnea Assessment

When a sleep apnea event happens, the blood oxygen level(pulse oximetry reading: SpO2) drops. Overnight blood oxygen level fluctuation can be used to assess sleep apnea or monitor the ongoing treatment.

Below are Wellue continuous oxygen monitors of different designs

– Tracking and recording overnight blood oxygen level fluctuation.

– Smart alarming function for abnormal blood oxygen or heart rate.  It works by vibrating on your finger or wrist. This function can be turned off.

– Easily share the data with your healthcare provider. 

O2Ring Continuous Ring Oxygen Monitor

Ring-shape design for comfortable sleep or daytime activity. 

SleepU™ Wrist Oxygen Monitor

Wrist-style design. 

Meet different tastes.

Checkme™ O2 Max Wrist Oxygen Monitor

With 72 hours extra-long battery life

I suspect I have sleep apnea, what should I do?

Sleep apnea is a serious and potentially fatal medical condition. If you or a loved one suspect you have it, you should see your doctor or be tested as soon as possible.

If your doctor suspects sleep apnea, they may recommend a sleep monitoring test. Also called a sleep study or polysomnography (PSG), it involves spending the night at a lab, clinic, or hospital. Your breathing and other vital signs will be monitored while you sleep.

It’s also possible to monitor your sleep in your own home. Your doctor might suggest at-home sleep monitoring if your symptoms and risk factors strongly suggest sleep apnea.

How often do I need to get supplies for my CPAP?

Regularly cleaning and replacing your mask, mask cushions, filters, and other CPAP equipment is vital in maintaining compliance. Various parts and pieces are scheduled to be replaced every so often as the materials in the equipment breakdown over time.

Most DME vendors will notify you when your equipment is due to be replaced. If you’re unsure of your replacement schedule or how often your insurance allows replacements, contact your DME provider and they will gladly check with your insurance company for you, so you don’t get any surprise bills in the mail.

Here is a general guideline for replacement parts:

Nasal interface – One every 3 months

Full face mask – One every 3 months

Nasal pillows – One per month

Nasal cushion – One per month

Full face cushion – one per month

Headgear – One every 6 months

Tubing – One every 3 months

Filter, disposable – Two per month

Filter, non-disposable – One every 6 months

Chinstrap – One every 6 months

Humidifier chamber – One every 6 months

If I lose weight, will I be able to get off CPAP therapy?

While weight and neck circumference are strong contributors to sleep apnea, they are not the only cause. Many people falsely believe that weight and neck size are the only causes of sleep apnea because they are the most obvious to point out.

Weight contributes to sleep apnea because of gravity and excessive tissues. When you sleep, the muscles of the body relax; this includes the muscles of the throat and mouth that work to keep your airway open during waking hours. People that are overweight often have larger necks and more soft fatty tissues in the throat. A narrower opening due to a thicker neck coupled with excess fatty tissue in the throat makes it easier for these tissues to fall back in the airway and restrict airflow.

However, many people that are not overweight also have sleep apnea for a variety of reasons. Some of these causes are:

Age – As people age their muscles begin to lose muscle tone. This is also true of the muscles in the throat. As throat muscles lose definition, they become weaker and more likely to collapse into the airways during sleep.

Enlarged tonsils or adenoids are the leading cause of obstructive sleep apnea in children but can also affect adults who never had a tonsillectomy when they were younger.

Natural causes – Some people can be genetically predisposed to having a narrower throat or may have an enlarged tongue that falls back into their airway. If your family has a history of OSA you are more likely to have it yourself.

Frequent alcohol use– Alcohol relaxes the muscles in the body, and this includes the throat muscles as well which may relax to the point of blocking the airway during sleep.

Smoking – Smoke is an irritant to the lungs, throat, and esophagus. It can cause inflammation and fluid retention in the upper airways that can impede airflow.

However, don’t let the idea of never getting off of CPAP discourage you from healthier lifestyle choices. While you may not be able to get off of CPAP entirely, losing weight can lead to less restrictive airflow, and therefore lower pressure settings, which can make therapy more tolerable.

Also, you may lose enough to put yourself in the mild to moderate group and qualify for a dental appliance as opposed to CPAP therapy.